Lithium primary batteries

Lithium Batteries designs, develops and manufactures custom lithium primary battery packs and assemblies for a variety of applications. Using advanced mechanical and electronic design techniques, our experienced battery design team optimizes the reliability, manufacturability and safety of your custom battery packs. This process offers our customers the most reliable and economical lithium primary battery pack solutions for their individual requirements.

Get a quote for the custom lithium battery packs you will need. Contact Lithium Batteries to learn more or to view individual product specifications for our custom lithium primary batteries.

Custom lithium battery packs and assemblies

Lithium is the lightest non-gaseous metal and its negative potential for batteries is higher than any other metal. Lithium chemistry batteries and battery packs have the highest specific energy (energy per unit weight) and energy density (energy per unit volume) of all battery types.

While most lithium cells have open circuit voltages (OCVs) between 2.7 and 3.6 V, most lithium primary cells have a relatively high impedance, which generally limits them to low power applications. Special high-speed discharge cells are available for certain applications.

Lithium primary batteries often have a wide operating temperature range and can continue to function properly in temperatures from -55 ° C to 150 ° C (67 ° F to 3002 ° F). Although burns or other extremely high temperatures can cause catastrophic failure of lithium batteries, other types of batteries tend to react similarly under the same conditions.

Lithium primary battery packs are available in a variety of chemical compositions, each with its own performance and safety characteristics. Poly (carbon monofluoride) lithium or (CF) X-Li; Manganese dioxide lithium or MnO2Li; Thionyl chloride-lithium or SOCl2Li; and sulfur dioxide lithium, SO2Li for short, have all proven to be particularly popular and effective.

Customized lithium manganese dioxide batteries and assemblies

Manganese dioxide lithium cells are similar to poly (carbon monofluoride) cells in terms of energy density, construction, safety, and OCV, but generally only last about half the life. However, MnO2Li cells are well suited for applications that require relatively high continuous or pulsed current requirements because their internal impedance is lower than that of other chemicals.

Manganese dioxide lithium battery specifications

Manganese dioxide lithium batteries are available in many standard cylindrical and coin sizes.

  • Cell voltage: 3.0 V (nominal)
  • Capacity: 30mAh to 5Ah
  • Energy by volume: (230 Wh / kg); 9.0 Wh / in  3  (550 Wh / L)
  • Energy by weight: depending on the cell configuration; up to 105 Wh / lb.
  • Discharge characteristics: Flat (stable voltage) discharge curves
  • Shelf life: 10+ years at 20 ° C (68 ° F)
  • Operating temperature range: -20 to 60 ° C (-4 to 140 ° F)
  • Sizes: variable
  • Applications: general use for applications that require small, high capacity batteries, e.g. B. Security transmitters, smoke detectors, cameras and photo equipment, computer peripherals, communication devices, personal organizers, memory backup, lighting, etc.
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Typical discharge at different temperatures for a typical 20 mm x 3.2 mm LiMn02 button cell Voltage vs. discharge load for a typical 20 mm x 3.2 mm LiMn02 button cell
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Capacity vs. discharge load for a typical 20 mm x 3.2 mm LiMn02 button cell Discharge characteristics for a typical 17mm x 28mm LiMN02 spiral cylindrical cell
Discharge vs. temperature for a typical cylindrical LiMn02 spiral cell measuring 17 mm x 28 mm

Custom lithium poly carbon monofluoride batteries and assemblies

Poly (carbon monofluoride) cells are an excellent solution for long term, low flow applications. They have an OCV of 3V and quite a high energy density. Although generally safe, their elastomer seals can, under extreme conditions, fail in front of the housing, allowing the relatively reactive cellular components to escape.

Lithium poly carbon monofluoride cells are available in all standard cylindrical sizes as well as in coin configurations. Cylindrical cells are made with spiral cathodes and crimped elastomer seals.

Specifications for lithium poly carbon monofluoride batteries

  • Cell voltage: 3.0 V (nominal)
  • Capacity: 25mAh to 5000mAh
  • Energy by weight: Wh / kg
  • Shelf life: 10+ years at 20 ° C (68 °)
  • Operating temperature range: -20 ° to 60 ° C (-4 ° to 140 ° F), specialties -40 ° to 85 ° C (-40 ° to 185 ° F)
  • Sizes: variable
  • Applications: pocket calculators, cameras, compact and energy-saving wireless applications, electronic clocks (digital and analog), memory backup in electronic devices (with tab terminals)

Request a quote or contact Lithium Batteries for more information.

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Typical discharge at various temperatures for a typical 20 mm x 3.2 mm (BR) button cell Voltage vs. discharge load for a typical 20mm x 3.2mm (BR) button cell
Capacity vs. discharge load for a typical 20 mm x 3.2 mm LiMn02 button cell Discharge properties for a typical 17 mm x 28 mm Li spiral cylinder cell
Long-term discharge properties for a typical 17 mm x 28 mm Li spiral cylinder cell Discharge vs. temperature for a typical cylindrical Li spiral cell measuring 17 mm x 28 mm

Customized lithium thionyl chloride batteries and assemblies

Thionyl chloride lithium cells are best suited for applications with very low continuous current and moderate pulsed current requirements. These cells have the highest energy density of all lithium types and are manufactured in welded, hermetically sealed housings. The service life is unmatched over 20 years, which applies to all housing types – cylindrical and coin / wafer.

The extremely long life and low self-discharge rate of thionyl chloride lithium cells make them ideal for applications with restricted physical access, such as remote sensing systems. For example, wireless passive infrared (PIR) sensors used in security systems typically draw very small currents (ten μA) in sleep mode and 7.5 mA to 10 mA during transmission. Under these operating conditions, lithium thionyl chloride battery cells offer up to 2.5 times longer service life than either poly (carbon monofluoride) or manganese dioxide lithium cells of the same size.

Specifications for lithium thionyl chloride batteries

  • Cell voltage: 3.6 V (nominal)
  • Capacity: 25mAh to 40,000mAh
  • Energy by volume: 1300 Wh / L
  • Energy by weight: 710 watt hours / kilogram
  • Discharge characteristics: see diagrams below
  • Shelf life: 9 years for spiral; 15-20 years for coil (up to 80% capacity)
  • Operating temperature range: -40 ° C to 85 ° C (-40 ° F to 185 ° F), specialties -55 ° C to 100 ° C (67 ° F to 212 ° F)
  • Sizes: variable
  • Applications: GPS Emergency Location / Roadside Assistance, Wireless Security Systems (PIR), Electronic Toll Tags, Tire Tags, Animal Tracking, Asset Tracking, Law Enforcement / Security, Emergency, Utilities and Metering, Deep Hole Drilling, Medical Equipment, Telecommunications

Get a Quote today or contact Lithium Batteries to find out more.

Operating voltage versus temperature and discharge current for a typical lithium thionyl chloride AA cell with a coil Available capacity versus temperature and discharge current for a typical lithium thionyl chloride AA cell with a coil

Customized lithium sulfur dioxide batteries and assemblies

Sulfur dioxide lithium cells are used almost exclusively in military / aerospace applications. This chemistry provides a slightly lower energy density than manganese dioxide lithium or poly (carbon monofluoride) lithium cells, and their energy density and lifetime are generally less than half that of thionyl chloride lithium cells. For safety reasons, “emergency” ventilation structures are required in the hermetically welded housings of these batteries.

Specifications for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries

  • Cell voltage: 3.0 V (nominal), 0.8 V (shutdown)
  • Capacity: N / A
  • Energy by volume: 500 Wh / L
  • Energy by weight: 290 Wh / kg
  • Discharge characteristics: N / A
  • Shelf life: 10+ years (up to 80% capacity)
  • Operating temperature range: -60 ° to 85 ° C (-76 ° to 185 ° F)
  • Sizes: round cells (typically 1 / 2AA, AA, “C” and “D”)
  • Applications: Devices that require a high constant current output, long-term storage, high current pulses and operation at low temperatures (e.g. military equipment)

Request a quote or contact Lithium Batteries for more information.

Other custom primary lithium battery systems

In addition to LiSOCl  2  and Li-SO  2  cells, a large number of other primary lithium cell types are available. Each lithium chemistry offers different technical properties for specific applications.

Lithium iodine cells

Li-I  2  cells offer excellent performance, very low self-discharge rates, high reliability and very high hermetic properties. They are used for limited applications such as pacemakers.

Lithium iron sulfide cells

Li-FeS  2  cells have very low self-discharge rates and very high pulse capacities – up to 1.5 amps for cells of size AA. These batteries are designed for niche markets such as camera flash systems.

Lithium copper oxide cells

Lithium copper oxide and lithium copper oxyphosphate cells were withdrawn from production in the mid-1990s. Today this chemistry is only used sparingly for highly specialized applications.

Get a quote for custom lithium primary battery packs for your application or contact Lithium Batteries to discuss your custom requirements.